sobota, december 27, 2008

FOTO-KNJIGA: POLONICE - PHOTO-BOOK: LADYBIRDS


Polonice so pomembni plenilci listnih uši. Pri nas sta najpogostejši sedempika (Coccinella septempunctata) in dvopika polonica (Adalia duopunctata). Sedempika ima na rdečih pokrovkah sedem črnih pik, dvopike pa so po barvnem vzorcu zelo variabilna vrsta. Lahko so z rdečima pokrovkama in črnimi pikami ter rumenim vratnim ščitom, ali pa s črnima pokrovkama in rdečimi pikami, pri tej variira tudi število pik, najpogosteje imajo 2 do 3 pike.
Pokrovki imenujemo trši prvi par kril, ki pokriva opnasti krili za letanje.
Poleg teh dveh polonic živi pri nas še nekaj hroščkov iz rodu polonic. Med njimi lahko omenimo štirinajstpiko polonico (Propylea quatordecimpunctata) z rumenima pokrovkama in črnimi lisami na pokrovkah in vratnem ščitu. Hippodamia convergens in Adonia variegata sta na prvi pogled podobni sedempiki polonici, le da sta nekoliko večji in bolj podolgovatega telesa, variegata ima sedem pik na rdečih pokrovkah in bele vzporedne črte na vratnem ščitu, convergens pa do 13 črnih pik na rdečih pokrovkah in beli črti na črnem vratnem ščitu.
Plenilci kaparjev so črni, le 3 - 4 mm veliki hroščki Chilocorus bipustulatus z rdečo piko v obliki klicaja na pokrovkah.
S ščitkarji se hranijo 1 - 1,5 mm veliki črni hroščki Delphastus catalinae, s pršicami in listnimi ušmi pa majhni 1,5 mm veliki, z dlačicami prekriti črni hroščki Stethorus punctum.
Dvaindvajsetpika polonica (Psyllobora vigintiduopunctata) ima rumeni pokrovki posuti z 22. črnimi pikami in je vegetarijanska vrsta, ki se prehranjuje z glivami in plesnimi.

Coccinellidae a family of beetles, known variously as ladybirds (lady bugs) are important aphid predators. Our most abundant species is seven spotted ladybird (Coccinella septempunctata) and two spotted ladybird (Adalia bipunctata). Seven spotted ladybird has on red elytra seven black spots, two spotted ladybird has highly variable color pattern. They may have red elytra and black spots with a yellow neck shield (pronotum), or black elytra and red spots. In these varieties also varies number of spots, most have from 2 to 3 spots. (Elytra are harder first couple of wings, which covers membraneous flying wings). Besides to these two ladybirds many beetles of the genus Coccinellidae live in Slovenia. Among them is the fourteen spotted ladybird (Propylea quatordecimpunctata) with a yellow elytra and black spots on the elytra and pronotum. Hippodamia convergens and Adonia variegata are at first glance like seven spotted ladybird, only that they have slightly larger and more elongated body, variegata with seven spots on red elytra and with white parallel lines on the pronotum, convergens has up to 13 black spots on red elytra and white line on Black pronotum.
Small black, only 3 - 4 mm large beetle with a red spot in the form of an exclamation mark on the elytra (Chilocorus bipustulatus) is scale insects predator.
1-1.5 mm large black beetle Delphastus catalinae is whitefly predator. Mites and aphids predator is a small 1.5 mm long black beetle, with fine hairs covered body, Stethorus punctum. The 22-spot ladybird, (Psyllobora vigintiduopunctata), 3–5 mm ladybird commonly found in Europe with yellow elytra and 22 black spots is a vegetarian species, feeding by mould and mildew.



Nekaj slik iz foto knjige POLONICE (Coccinellidae)
Some photos from the Photo-book: Ladybirds(Coccinellidae)
Rastlinojeda vrsta, ki se hrani s plesnimi: 22 pika polonica





Razvoj harlekinske polonice (Harmonia axyridis) od jajčeca do odrasle polonice






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